T.A. Umoru, Oluwafemi Peter Adekunle


The study investigates the effects of programmed instruction teaching method (PIM) on the academic achievement and learning retention of students in business studies in Oyo State, Nigeria. Three research questions guided the study and two hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The population of the study was all junior secondary school business studies students in Oyo State, Nigeria. Purposive sampling technique was used to select a sample of 105 students for the study. Pre-test, post-test non-equivalent groups quasi-experimental design was used for the study and the instrument for data collection were programmed book in business studies and business studies achievement test (BSAT) which were developed by the researchers and validated by two experts. A reliability correlation co-efficient of 0.78 was obtained for the test items using test re-test and Pearson Product Moment Correlation instrument. Mean was used to analyse data relating to research questions while analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test the hypotheses. Findings revealed that students taught business studies using programmed instruction method (PIM) achieved better with higher post-test mean score than those taught using conventional teaching method (CTM). Also, findings revealed that mean retention score of students taught business studies using PIM was higher than that of those taught using CTM and that the interaction effects of teaching methods and gender was not significant on students' academic achievement and retention in business studies. It was recommended that business studies teachers should use programmed instruction method in teaching so as to enhance students' academic achievement and retention in the subject. The school administration and other stakeholders should provide opportunities for in-service training for business studies teachers in other to equip them with competencies needed in the application of programmed instruction teaching method for teaching business studies.


Keywords: Academic Achievement, Learning Retention, Business Studies, programmed Instruction Teaching Method

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